headlock n : a wrestling hold in which the opponent's head is locked between the crook of your elbow and the side of your body
- French: cravate
A grappling hold (commonly referred to simply as a hold; in Japanese referred to as katame-waza, 固め技, "grappling technique") is a grappling, wrestling, judo or other martial arts term for a specific grip that is applied to an opponent. Holds are principally used to control the opponent, and to advance in points or positioning. Holds may be categorized by their function such as clinching, pinning, pain compliance or submission, while others can be classified by their anatomical effect: chokehold, joint-lock or compression lock.
Clinch holdA clinch hold (also known as a clinching hold) is a grappling hold which is used in clinch fighting with the purpose of controlling the opponent. In wrestling it is referred to as the Tie-up. The use of a clinch hold results in the clinch. Clinch holds can be used to close in on the opponent, as a precursor to a takedown or throw, or to prevent the opponent from moving away or striking effectively. Typical clinch holds include:
Pain compliance hold
A pain compliance hold (also referred to as a pain compliance technique or sometimes a pain hold) is a grappling hold which uses painful joint lock, compression lock or pressure point technique to control a person or opponent. Pain compliance techniques are used by law enforcement, and often taught as a self-defense technique in martial arts and combatives.
Frequently used by police and corrections personnel in accordance with an "escalation of force" policy, such techniques presume a rational adversary. Some altered states such as mental illness, extreme flexibility, phencyclidine and amphetamine use, or extreme adrenaline may alter the subject's perception of pain or willingness to submit. Like other forms of non-lethal force, such pain compliance strategies are not perfect and may be abused as a form of torture, with plausible deniability. For this reason the use of pain compliance holds is often subject to explicit rules of engagement designed to prevent abuse and avoid conflict escalation.
Pinning holdA pinning hold (also known as a hold down and in Japanese as osaekomi-waza, 押込技, "pinning technique") is a general grappling hold used in ground fighting which is aimed at exerting superior control over an opponent and pinning the opponent to the ground. Pinning holds where both the opponent's shoulders touch the ground are considered winning conditions in several combat sports.
An effective pinning hold is a winning condition in many styles of wrestling, and is known as simply a "pin". Pinning holds maintained for 25 seconds are also a winning condition in Judo. Pinning holds are also used in submission wrestling and mixed martial arts, even though the pinning hold itself is not a winning condition. The holds can be used to rest while the opponent tries to escape or to control the opponent while striking, a tactic known as ground and pound.
Submission holdA submission hold (colloquially referred to as a "submission") is a combat sports term for a grappling hold which is applied with the purpose of forcing an opponent to submit, either due to extreme pain or fear of injury. Submission holds are used primarily in ground fighting and can be separated into chokeholds, compression locks and joint locks. When used as a form of self-defense, these techniques may cause dislocation, torn ligaments, bone fractures, unconsciousness or even death.
Common combat sports featuring submission holds are:
Partial list of grappling holdsThe same hold may be called by different names in different arts or countries. Some of the more common names for grappling holds in contemporary English include:
- Armlock: A general term for joint locks at the elbow or shoulder.
- Arm triangle choke: A chokehold similar to the triangle choke except using the arms.
- Bear hug: A clinching hold encircling the opponent's torso with both arms, pulling toward oneself.
- Biceps slicer: A compression lock on the elbow joint and biceps.
- Can opener: A type of neck crank.
- Chicken wing: Term for various hammer/keylocks, especially among Shoot wrestling and Jeet Kune Do practitioners.
- Collar tie: facing the opponent with one or both hands on the back of their head/neck.
- Cradle: Compress opponent in a sit-up position to pin shoulders from side mount.
- Crosschoke: Athlete crosses own arms in "X" shape and holds onto opponent's gi or clothing.
- Crucifix: A type of neck crank.
- Figure four: Term for arranging one's own arm or legs to resemble shape of numeral "4" when holding opponent.
- Flying armbar: A type of armbar that is performed from a stand-up position.
- Gearlock: a modified sleeper hold that puts an incredible amount of force on the opponents windpipe, choking them out almost instantly if applied properly.
- Gogo-plata: Performed by putting ones shin on the wind pipe of an opponent and pulling the head down. Typically set up from the rubber guard.
- Grapevine: twisting limbs around limbs in a manner similar to a plant vine.
- Guillotine choke: a facing headlock or choke, usually applied to an opponent from above.
- Hammerlock: Pins the opponent's arm behind the back, with wrist toward their own shoulder.
- Harness: A hold which encircles the torso of an opponent, sometimes diagonally.
- Headlock: Circling the opponent's neck with an arm, especially from the side. Also called a rear Chancellery.
- Leg scissors: Causes compressive asphyxia by pressing the chest or abdomen.
- Leg slicer: A compression lock on the calf and thigh.
- Locoplata: A variation of the Gogo-plata that uses the other foot to push the shin into the windpipe and uses the arm to wrap around the back of the head to grab the foot to secure the choke.
- Lock: Any stabilization of one or more joints at their normal extreme range of motion.
- Muay Thai clinch: Holding the opponent with both arms around the neck while standing.
- Neck crank: Applies pressure to the neck by pulling or twisting the head.
- Nelson: (quarter, half, three-quarter and full): The arm is circled under the opponent's arm, and secured at the neck.
- Omoplata: BJJ shoulder lock using the legs.
- Overhook: Holding over the opponents arm while standing.
- Pinch grip tie: Term for a particular harness hold, common in Greco-Roman wrestling circles.
- Spine crank: Applies pressure to the spine by twisting or bending the body.
- Stack: Compress opponent in vertical sit-up position (feet up) to pin their shoulders to mat.
- Staple: Using the opponent's clothing to help pin them against a surface.
- Tie: A transitional hold used to stabilize the opponent in preparation for striking or throwing.
- Toe hold: A type of leglock which hyperextends the ankle.
- Triangle choke: A chokehold which forms a triangle around the opponent's head using the legs.
- Twister: A type of body bend and neck crank.
- Underhook: Holding under the opponent's arm while standing.
- Wristlock: A general term for joint locks on the wrist or radioulnar joint.Wristlocks form the trademark offense of Aikido, and are used in combination with Keylocks in catch wrestling.
- Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: Theory and Technique by Renzo Gracie and Royler Gracie (2001). ISBN 1-931229-08-2
- Championship Wrestling, Revised Edition. (Annapolis MD: United States Naval Institute, 1950).
- No Holds Barred Fighting: The Ultimate Guide to Submission Wrestling by Mark Hatmaker with Doug Werner. ISBN 1-884654-17-7
- Small-Circle Jujitsu by Wally Jay. (Burbank CA: Ohara Publications, 1989).
- Free Jiu-Jitsu and Submission Grappling Videos
- The Subtle Science of the Muay Thai Clinch By Roberto Pedreira Includes pictures of common Muay Thai clinching holds.
- Lessons in Wrestling and Physical Culture, a scan of the 1912 correspondence course from Martin 'Farmer' Burns.
- List of Submissions for MMA Grappling holds and submissions used in MMA. Each submission links to videos and step by step instruction.
- categorized judo techniques on video - Tournaments, champions, Olympics etc.
- Mixed Martial Arts Search Engine A search engine covering all things exclusive to MMA.